josephus valley of hinnom

23:10; 2 Chr. From then on, the perversion of Scripture by the Jews and evangelical Christians went out of control. Child sacrifice is well attested in the ancient world, especially in times of crisis. Tyropoeon Valley (i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemakers") is the name given by Josephus the historian (Wars 5.140) to the valley or rugged ravine, in the Old City of Jerusalem, which in ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion and emptied into the valley of Hinnom. By Jesus' time, the Greek translation of Hinnom Valley, gehenna, became a synonym for hell. Many no doubt did as Heider allows (269, 272, 406) though J. —The Heb. Site 51: The Sultan's Pool. From the map of ancient Jerusalem to the left one can gather that Jerusalem was a city of hills and valleys, in many ways like ancient Rome. His father's accession to the Roman throne left the war against the Jews to Titus. [33] Gehenna became a metonym for "Hell" due to its morbid prominence in Jewish religious texts. The burial place called Akeldama, meaning “field of blood,” was located in the eastern part of the Valley of Hinnom, and made famous by Judas (Matthew 27:3-10; Acts 1:16-19). 15:8; 18:16; 2 Kgs. “It is located by Josephus between Jerusalem and Bethlehem (Ant., VII, iv, i; xii, 4). It begins W of the Jaffa gate, turns S c. a third of a mile, and gradually curves E to join the Kidron valley. There is some debate whether the idea of the garbage tip was located here, as Josephus omits references to this tradition. The passage in Kings locates the place in the valley of the son of Hinnom. All three of the valleys around Jerusalem have been identified with it—the Kidron to the E, the Tyropoeon in the center, and the Wadi er-Rababi on the W. Early Jewish, Christian, and Mohammedan writers identified it with Kidron, but scarcely anyone does so today. [36] In certain usage, the Christian Bible refers to it as a place where both soul (Greek: ψυχή, psyche) and body could be destroyed (Matthew 10:28) in "unquenchable fire" (Mark 9:43).[37]. when Jesus spoke in Aramaic/Hebrew, He didn't say Gehenna, but valley of Hinnom (in Aramaic), now when a Jew heard valley of Hinnom - came a place of everlasting torment in his mind? It is a reference to the valley just outside of Jerusalem “variously designated in the Hebrew text as the valley ‘of the sons of Hinnom (2 Kings 23:10), ‘of the son of Hin… The Central Valley was a rugged ravine, like the Kidron and Hinnom, that separated Mount Moriah (Eastern Hill) from Mount Zion (Western Hill). Created by damming the Valley of Hinnom, it held rainwater collected in the upper part of the valley. Soon, the Kidron valley and the Valley of Hinnom were filled with corpses. 5. [20] The site would also have been disrupted by the actions of Josiah "And he defiled Topheth, which is in the valley of the children of Hinnom, that no man might make his son or his daughter to pass through the fire to Molech." [26] Also, Lloyd R. Bailey's "Gehenna: The Topography of Hell"[27] from 1986 holds a similar view. [22], The ancient Aramaic paraphrase-translations of the Hebrew Bible known as Targums supply the term "Gehinnom" frequently to verses touching upon resurrection, judgment, and the fate of the wicked. [34] Instead of being sent to Gehenna, the souls of the wicked would actually get annihilated. As you've pointed out, Gehenna (γέεννα) is just a transliteration of the Hebrew for "Valley of Hinnom" (גֵּי הִנֹּם) and the Aramaic for the same (גֵיהִנָּם / ܓܗܢܐ). The name given to Hell in Islam, Jahannam, directly derives from Gehenna. In rabbinic literature, Gehenna is also a destination of the wicked. Not far distant thence was the south-east corner. 5. The valley of the son of Hinnom - This valley begins on the west of Jerusalem at the road to Joppa, and turning southeastward round the foot of Mount Zion joins the deeper valley of Kedron … the valley of Rephaim, as it is called ( 2 Samuel 5:18) , and here Mount Moriah, as it was to the west of the valley of Hinnom, it was to the north of the valley of Rephaim; which valley, as Josephus F14 says, was not far from Jerusalem, twenty furlongs from it. Treatment of Gehenna in Christianity is significantly affected by whether the distinction in Hebrew and Greek between Gehenna and Hades was maintained: Many modern Christians consider Gehenna to be a place of eternal punishment. which is at the end of the valley of the giants, northward: the valley of Rephaim, as it is called 2 Samuel 5:18, and here Mount Moriah, as it was to the west of the valley of Hinnom, it was to the north of the valley of Rephaim; which valley, as Josephus says, was not far from Jerusalem, twenty furlongs from it. The Valley of Hinnom commenced at Jerusalem and journeyed eastwards at a precipitous rate until it emptied into the northern parts of the Dead Sea. when Jesus spoke in Aramaic/Hebrew, He didn't say Gehenna, but valley of Hinnom (in Aramaic), now when a Jew heard valley of Hinnom - came a place of everlasting torment in his mind? The Kabbalah explains it as a "waiting room" (commonly translated as an "entry way") for all souls (not just the wicked). Of these hills, that which contains the upper city is much higher, and in length more direct. the valley of Rephaim, as it is called ( 2 Samuel 5:18) , and here Mount Moriah, as it was to the west of the valley of Hinnom, it was to the north of the valley of Rephaim; which valley, as Josephus F14 says, was not far from Jerusalem, twenty furlongs from it. Jeremiah warns the inhabitants of Jerusalem that they face invasion by the Chaldeans, and one of the consequences will be that the bodies of the dead will be buried in the Valley of the Son of Hinnom because there will be no room elsewhere (Jer. Eventually the Hebrew term Gehinnom[31] became a figurative name for the place of spiritual purification for the wicked dead in Judaism. While no evidence of child sacrifice has been uncovered in the Hinnom Valley, scholars today debate whether child sacrifice was practiced at Phoenician sites in the western Mediterranean. : Rabbinic Descriptions of Gehenna, A Christian Conditionalist perspective on Gehenna, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Gehenna&oldid=994243276, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from January 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Matthew 23:33, to the Pharisees: "You serpents, you brood of vipers, how shall you to escape the sentence of Gehenna? 28:3; 33:6; Neh. The term is used 11 times in these writings. ", "The place where children were sacrificed to the god, "gehenna." The Kidron Valley runs to the east of the Old City and separates the Mount of Olives from the city proper. Tyropoeon Valley (i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemakers") is the name given by Josephus the historian (Wars 5.140) to the valley or rugged ravine, in the Old City of Jerusalem, which in ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion and emptied into the valley of Hinnom. The 20th century New International Version, In texts in Greek, and consistently in the, The 17th century King James Version of the Bible is the only English translation in modern use to translate Sheol, Hades, and Gehenna by calling them all "Hell. [4] Gehinnom is not Hell, but originally a grave and in later times a sort of purgatory where one is judged based on one's life's deeds, or rather, where one becomes fully aware of one's own shortcomings and negative actions during one's life. One defector told Titus that their number was estimated at 115,880. There is evidence however that the southwest shoulder of this valley (Ketef Hinnom) was a burial location with numerous burial chambers that were reused by generations of families from as early as the seventh until the fifth century BC.

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