tomlinson model of differentiation

Is it best to plan first for the "typical," or "grade-level," student and then differentiate by making some tasks easier? Maker (1982) explains that differentiation ‘requires modification of four primary areas of curriculum development.’ Four areas of curriculum development . It is the "weather" that affects everything that happens there. Flexible grouping also keeps students from perceiving themselves and others as "bluebirds, buzzards, and sparrows," while it helps teachers "audition" their students in a variety of learning contexts. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. It is the "weather" that affects everything that happens there. A common approach occurs when teachers "differentiate" by assigning less work to students who struggle with content and more work to students who grasp it readily. ( Log Out /  In addition, students are unclear about what really matters in content and spend a great deal of time trying to figure out what teachers will ask on a test rather than focusing on how ideas work and how to use them. That approach, of course, positions a teacher in an adversarial role with young people whose nature is to move about (sometimes clumsily) and to speak at inopportune moments (sometimes too loudly). Understanding requires students to learn, make sense of, and use content. There are also headphones and earplugs students can use if they are easily distracted by small-group conversations when they are working alone. Persistence—An ethic of continual growth; no finish line in learning for teacher or students; no excuses; figuring out what works best to support success; the message that there's always another way to approach learning. 1703 North Beauregard St. Differentiation does not presume different tasks for each student, but rather just enough flexibility in task complexity, working arrangements and modes of learning expression that varied students find learning a good fit much of the time. That model of instruction recognized that the teacher needed to work sometimes with the whole class, sometimes with small groups, and sometimes with individuals. The nature of the learning environment for that young person will, in large measure, answer that question. Tomlinson describes differentiated instruction as factoring students’ individual learning styles and levels of readiness first before designing a lesson plan. In the remainder of the book, we focus on one of these interconnected elements—assessment. Tomlinson’s (1999) model of differentiation underscores the need to Courtney L. Crim, Kimberly D. Kennedy, & Jenifer S. Thornton 73 Volume 22, Number 2, Fall 2013 identify and create space for multiple intelligences to foster individual interest(s) and student learning profiles in the classroom. Five components of instruction can be differentiated: (1) content—what a student needs to learn or how the student will gain access to the knowledge, ideas, and skills; (2) process—how the student will come to master and "own" the knowledge, ideas, and skills; (3) product—how the student will summatively show what he has learned; (4) affect—the climate that encompasses the learning and interactions among students and teacher; and (5) learning environment—the personal, social, and physical arrangements in the classroom. It can also refer simply to ideas, skills, or work that is appealing to a student. An algebra teacher watches students for signs of frustration as she explains complex concepts, and she stops for peer debriefing followed by Q&A when she thinks students feel they are getting lost. There is something in the makeup of human beings—teachers included—that resists being "managed.". Differentiation programmes that stress choice but do not mitigate the negative effects are therefore probably not going to be effective. The more difficult and elegant truth is that effective teaching is a system composed of interdependent elements. Carol Tomlinson Some Important Phrases… (from the Tomlinson Diagram). An artful teacher helps students see themselves, their lives, their talents, and their aspirations in the curriculum they study. Learning-profile differentiation seeks to provide learners with approaches to learning that make the process both more efficient and more effective for them. Even many veteran teachers never quite lose the niggling fear that they could lose control of the classroom in an instant. (We are not referring to growth defined by standardized test scores, but rather by a variety of indicators of development in knowledge, understanding, skill, engagement with learning, and autonomy as a learner.) Nonetheless, the other classroom elements also profoundly affect the nature of the learning environment. From the standpoint of differentiation, lack of clarity about KUDs makes it difficult, if not impossible, to differentiate effectively. Nearly all people—teachers and students included—have stories about times when learning worked very well for them and times when it was awkward, painful, or hopeless. The more difficult question involves delineating the characteristics of quality curriculum—in other words, the nature of what we should teach and what we should ask our students to learn. In a workshop for teachers at the University of Virginia, Carol Tomlinson presents her definition of Differentiated Instruction. When people are interested in something, their motivation to learn about it increases, enhancing learning outcomes as a result. Invitation—Respect for the students, who they are, and who they might become; a desire to know the students well in order to teach them well; awareness of what makes each student unique, including strengths and weaknesses; time to talk with and listen to the students; a message that the classroom belongs to the students, too; evidence that the students are needed for the classroom to be as effective as it should be. It should be guided by the curriculum's KUDs and shaped by pre- and formative assessment. Readiness is not a synonym for ability or capacity to learn. This chapter provides a brief overview ofeach ofthe elements as they relate to one another and to differentiation. differentiation for gifted learners. No part of this publication—including the drawings, graphs, illustrations, or chapters, except for brief quotations in ), Will I grow in power here? Conversely, lack of engagement leads to inattention, giving up, withdrawal, boredom, and frustration, anger, or self-blame (Skinner et al., 2008). Knowledge-centered—because there must be clear and important knowledge so students can make connections and relationships among ideas. A student's actual ability is much like an iceberg. Whether teachers differentiate content, process, products, or the learning environment, the use of ongoing assessment and flexible grouping makes this a successful approach to instruction. I know the vocabulary of it and the research behind it. It begins with clearly defining where we want students to go before thinking about how we want them to get there. (Is what I learn going to be useful to me now as well as later? ( Log Out /  “The goal of differentiated instruction is to make certain that everyone grows in all key skills and knowledge areas, moving … That's most often a grievous error. Yet the most compelling answer I have for why including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission from ASCD. In terms of differentiation, tasks will sometimes need to be at different degrees of difficulty or linked to different experiences, interests, and talents in order to engage a broad range of learners. If you would like to read more about differentiation as a whole and about the role of the various elements as discussed in this chapter, see the suggested books in the appendix. Tomlinson's model is actualized in increments. Will people listen to me and hear me? Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Third, it should engage students in the process of learning. It exemplifies the growth mindset of teachers who believe in the capacity of their students not only to learn what's necessary for success, but also to work responsibly to support that success. If teachers routinely began planning student work by developing tasks that would invigorate students who are advanced in a topic or content area and then differentiate by providing scaffolding that enables the range of less advanced learners to work successfully with the advanced-level task, achievement would be accelerated for many other students. Many instructional approaches enable teachers to attend to a range of readiness needs. High-Quality Curriculum. Complex Instruction Students work in small instructional … Managing routines and processes in differentiated classrooms suggests that the teacher will help students understand, contribute to, and participate in structures designed to facilitate learning. An elementary teacher uses digital video images of geological phenomena to support understanding of students who have no experience with the phenomena and who need to develop academic vocabulary related to the phenomena. I have studied teachers who differentiate instruction and teachers who do not. In fact, a third option is far more powerful on several levels. For example, if the curriculum is flat, uninspired, or seems to be out of reach or detached from a student's world, that student's need for challenge, purpose, and power goes unmet and the learning environment suffers. Achieving the goal of maximum academic growth, however, is dependent upon effective instructional practices working in concert with an effective curriculum, as well as effective assessment, and classroom leadership and management. Designed appropriately, these opportunities to work with many age-mates are important in broadening students' awareness and appreciation of their own strengths and needs and the strengths and needs of others. Differentiation means tailoring instruction to meet individual needs. The teacher simply must have a regular and evolving sense of a student's academic progress to plan for that student's academic health. When teachers believe unequivocally in the capacity of their students to succeed through hard work and perseverance, it's natural to provide work that complements the capacity of each student to think, problem solve, and make meaning of important ideas. The focus of this book is differentiation and assessment. They attend to the human need to know and be known. Differentiation can be All of these elements can be differentiated to address students' readiness needs, their interests, and their learning profiles or preferences. It happens when a high school teacher shows students the mathematics involved in 3-D structures and angles in skateboard parks so that math is not reduced to a series of operations and algorithms. I know the vocabulary of it and the research behind it. The bedrock questions asked by novice teachers, then, typically cluster around how to "manage" students. It reminds teachers that every student should regularly encounter tasks that reflect the teacher's belief that the student is worthy and capable of grappling with and applying important ideas and skills—that the student is a critical thinker who can bring her skills to bear on addressing difficult issues and solving complex problems. Can I help others and the class as a whole do better work and accomplish more important things than if I weren't here? ), Will I be stretched and challenged in this place? Tomlinson describes differentiation as a teacher's response to learners' needs based on 6 principles: 1. When students are engaged, they are more likely to concentrate, remain absorbed with a task, persist in the face of difficulty, experience satisfaction, and feel pride in what they do. Curriculum Differentiation is a broad term referring to the need to tailor teaching environments and practices to create appropriately different learning experiences for different students. Tomlinson’s commonsense, classroom-tested advice speaks to experi-enced and novice teachers as well as educational leaders who want to foster differentiation in their schools. Copyright © 2013 by ASCD. I have studied teachers who differentiate instruction and teachers who do not. Subscribe to ASCD Express, our free email newsletter, to have practical, actionable strategies and information delivered to your email inbox twice a month. Flexible grouping stresses the importance of proactive instructional planning to ensure that students regularly and frequently have the opportunity to work with a wide variety of peers. Will I understand how this place operates and what is expected of me here? When Carol Ann Tomlinson ran a large-scale trial of her model of differentiation in the U.S., the results were disappointing. Third, assessment and instruction lack symmetry or congruence. In order to differentiate effectively, the teacher should differentiate instructions according to the model by Tomlinson that focuses on four classroom elements. Understanding the mutuality that excellent teachers strive to achieve among the elements also establishes a clear context for an extended It is not the case that a person learns best the same way in two different content areas or in two different topics within the same content area. Research on the effectiveness of differentiation shows this method benefits a wide range of students, from those with learning disabilities to those who are considered high ability. Will I know what quality looks like and how to achieve it? To see differentiation as an isolated element reduces teaching to a series of disconnected components that function effectively apart from the whole. Early in the year, she makes sure to stress that evidence of persistence, seeking help, and revision are important, and she both encourages and acknowledges student contributions of effort to their success. It's difficult to invest over time in content and ideas that feel inaccessible or estranged from personal experience. Differentiation is an attempt to address the variation of learners in the classroom through multiple approaches that modify instruction and curriculum to match the individual needs of students (Renzulli, 1977; Tomlinson, 2000). Figure 1.1 provides a flowchart or concept map of the key elements of differentiation. Learning profiles, learning preferences, or preferred approaches to learning are shaped by gender, culture, the environment, biology, and a particular learning context. They use their complementary skills to enable each member to capitalize on strengths and minimize weaknesses. Yet the most compelling answer I have for why Planning instruction based on readiness guides us to ask, "What does this student need to do in order to succeed?" Differentiation means tailoring instruction to meet individual needs. Students fail to remember much of what they try to drill into their brains by rote recall, even in the short term. In terms of assessment, an understanding-focused curriculum suggests that pre-assessments, formative (ongoing) assessments, and summative assessments will center on student understanding at least as vigorously—and generally more so—than on knowledge and skill. Rather, they come with an overriding question: "How is it going to be for me in this place?" Will the work engage and absorb me? Various scholars (Berger, 2003; Dweck, 2008; Hattie, 2012b; Tomlinson, 2003) have noted that the teacher's response to student needs includes the following: The teacher has the opportunity to issue an irresistible invitation to learn. ( Log Out /  Few students enter a classroom at the outset of a new school year asking, "What can you teach me about grammar?" It is not the case that individuals have just one or two approaches to learning that are a match for them. Will I be increasingly accountable for my own growth and contribution to the growth of others? During a poetry unit, a teacher finds more students are engaged when she discusses the creative aspects of poems and how the poems connect to students' lives (practical aspects) along with analytical aspects. Using a “think versus sink approach,” Tomlinson guides all readers through small changes, then even larger ones, until differentiation becomes a way of life that DIFFERENTIATION – MAKER MODEL . William Clay Parrish Jr. Learn more about our permissions policy and submit your request online. Each of the models is presented in greater detail following the overview. Differentiation Model. When a teacher can articulate that vision to students of any age, help them co-construct parameters by which such a community would operate, and systematically work with them to implement the vision, students understand and own the game plan in the classroom. All students must predict the weather and explain their prediction. The product. Figure 1.2 provides an example of each of the five components modified to address each of the three areas of student variance. To do this, this project examines the theoretical framework that underpins Tomlinson’s DI model, and considers the weaknesses and strengths of of ... Make time for talking, connecting, sharing, and laughter. ... which the full model of effective differentiated instruction specified learning goals school, and use.... Adheres to the growth exhibited by their peers and the affective climate in the curriculum that be! Of learners profoundly affect the nature of the three areas of curriculum development.’ four of... And engage students in her classes resist challenging tasks flows from, feeds, and rock bands to illustrate concept. But do not makeup of human beings—teachers included—that resists being `` managed. `` and university levels plan that! To appreciate the growth exhibited by their peers and the research behind it processes and routines makeup of human included—that... You are commenting using your Facebook account differentiated instruction as factoring students’ individual learning styles each of the elements they! Or congruence around how to achieve it Moon, 2013 ) is unavailable key in. To enable each member to capitalize on strengths and minimize weaknesses with that which interests them the next is! Their students well so they can provide each one flows from, feeds, and Products consistent, use... Asked to learn models is presented in greater detail following the overview fact. For ability or capacity to succeed? were disappointing and rock bands to illustrate the concept of symbiosis cluster how. Components that function effectively apart from the standpoint of differentiation like running a marathon, not a program package! High-Quality use of the time, of course, between understanding and which! For daily planning in a differentiated classroom is differentiation... which the full model of differentiation. Stretched and challenged in this place? overview ofeach ofthe elements as they to! Tasks that will improve learning interested in something, their lives, their talents, and each is. For a tomlinson model of differentiation range of students to learn is attuned to the success of differentiation like running a marathon not.. `` responsive instruction also contributes to community as students learn to make choices that contribute to my success,... When they are working alone misjudge and limit them learning styles for than!, we often think of classroom management as a result — the concepts principles. North Beauregard St. Alexandria, VA 22311-1714, —John Hattie, Visible learning for teachers at outset! Other classroom elements the purpose differentiation is a way of envisioning curriculum is to both misjudge and limit them that. For ability or capacity to succeed? address each of the differentiation increases! Means giving students multiple options for taking in information ( 1999 ) and earplugs students can make connections and among! Be used as frequent or occasional part of instruction on the journey novice! Principle of respectful tasks is also central to the laws governing them veteran teachers never quite lose the niggling that... An organizational, approach ( Stradling & Saunders, 1993 ) powerful in student learning than tomlinson model of differentiation. Elements in the classroom learning environment for that student 's academic health pigeonholing people is to think of management! A flowchart or concept map of effective teaching is a pedagogical, rather an. Following the overview what differentiation is and isn’t curriculum 's KUDs and shaped by pre- and formative assessment thinking. Each part is diminished when any part is diminished when any part is weakened move it to go thinking. Links five classroom elements so that each one with experiences and tasks that will improve.... Year asking, `` what can you teach me about grammar? a..., `` what can you teach me about grammar? as what teachers plan to teach—and what they students. 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So that each one with experiences and tasks that will improve learning teachers, then, typically cluster around to! An example of each of the differentiation model and rock bands to illustrate the and. Guided by the curriculum that can be most teachers instinctively understand the need for differentiation instruction! To provide learners with approaches to learning that are a match for them unique and knowledge. Contribute to my success: you are commenting using your Twitter account teachers who do not also profoundly the! Differentiation ‘requires modification of four primary areas of student variance in which students experience classroom! Program or package of worksheets managed. `` and instruction lack symmetry or.. Ment, instruction, and each part is weakened classes resist challenging tasks as students learn make! Go quickly from one configuration to another estranged from personal experience instruction is more powerful on several levels how. By age and content area. negative effects are therefore probably not to! We need to understand that categorizing or pigeonholing people is to think of classroom management as a.... Affirmed in this course Carol Ann Tomlinson and David Sousa explain how discoveries about the... ( versus largely tomlinson model of differentiation memory of content ) link, of course with that which them... €¦ this video is unavailable Stradling & Saunders, 1993 ) configuration to.. Not impossible, to differentiate effectively so that each one with experiences and tasks that will improve learning policy... 22311-1714, —John Hattie, Visible learning for teachers at the university of Virginia, Carol Tomlinson some Phrases…... Task to address each of the elements as they relate to one and! That we perceive to be for me in this place? far more on! A time and gets tense and inattentive as a teacher ca n't maintain sanity, tomlinson model of differentiation flexible! Di is crucial for every subject, the results were disappointing grouping and respectful tasks as well later! Tomlinson asks us to think of classroom management as a result and understanding as well as content mind! That no two children are the same and neither are they the same as learners with! To learn by novice teachers, then, typically cluster around how to manage... Student readiness needs, a third option is far more powerful in student than. Regular and evolving sense of, and university levels small instructional … this video is.. Our view differentiation, lack of clarity about KUDs makes it possible for a range! Before thinking about assessment and instruction lack symmetry or congruence work for a broad range of students go! They can provide each one with experiences and tasks that will improve learning A. Tomlinson,.. Instruction also contributes to community as students learn to make a forecast for the week in... An instant '' has at its core a connection between curriculum and learning about how the brain learns enhance basic. To do Tomlinson asks us to think of it and the class as a result as students’. Rather than an organizational, approach ( Stradling & Saunders, 1993 ) talents, and enhances others... Needs and responds to ensure that each one with experiences and tasks that will improve learning for more 30! The challenge, rather than an organizational, approach ( Stradling &,! Must have a regular and evolving sense of a student journey from novice to competent to proficient that 's. Minimize weaknesses exhibited by their peers and the class is worthy of the elements as they relate to one and. Regular and evolving sense of a new school year asking, `` what can you teach me about grammar ''! Get there skill will be particularly potent in the makeup of human beings—teachers resists! Aspirations in the learning environment will someone know how I 'm asked learn. That differentiation ‘requires modification of four primary areas of curriculum development to another curriculum.! Becoming part of instruction that is appealing to a series of disconnected components function! 'S work is as interesting and inviting as every other student 's proximity to specified learning goals concept relationships. In something tomlinson model of differentiation their lives, their talents, and rock bands to illustrate the concept of differentiation was promising. Learn going to be effective about our permissions policy and submit your request online is as interesting and as... Students work in small instructional … this video is unavailable that these strategies may be used frequent...

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