form 4 chemistry notes on metals

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The Aluminium oxide dissociates to give constituent ions; A silvery white metal which quickly becomes dulled. To determine melting point Water bath – to ensure uniform heating Plot graph – y – axis (Start at 50 o C). The main ore of iron are; Reduction of Iron( III) Oxide is carried out in a blast furnace. VO1:The major noise pollution from industries are from the vehicle operations within, VO2:Sulphur (IV) oxide is a major pollutant from metal industries Land pollution resulting from metal extraction is due to chemical waste disposal and mining. Iron reacts with dilute nitric (V) acid to form nitrogen (IV) oxide and ammonia which then forms ammonium nitrate. The insoluble lead (II) sulphate is then precipitated and separated by filtration; The zinc sulphate is then dissolved in water and the solution electrolysed. Removal of this protective cover renders the metal reactive. Carbon (II) Oxide and coke are the reducing agents in the furnace. The sulphur (IV) oxide escapes into the atmosphere and is the major pollutant in this process. NOTE: The copper produced by this method is 99.98% pure. Zinc extracted by the electrolytic method is much more pure. In this lesson we will discuss the extraction of Copper metal, Zinc and Lead. The calcium Oxide with the other impurities to form slag. 4. Calculate the mass of sodium produced in kg (Na = 23; 1F = 96500 C), For the same quantity of electricity as in (c) above ; calculate the volume of the gaseous product produced in the cell at 15. Liquid zinc being lighter settles above molten lead and is run off; The vapour is condensed in a spray of molten lead to prevent re-oxidation of zinc. (Courtesy of You Tube), VO1:Making coins and ornaments VO2:Making alloys such as brass (Cu & Zn) Bronze (Cu & Sn) VO3:Making soldering instruments due to the high thermal conductivity VO4:Making electrical wires and contacts in switches plugs and sockets because copper is a good conductor of electricity. The resultant carbon (IV) oxide produced in reaction (i) above further reduces any remaining lead (II) oxide; The scrap iron is added so as to react with any lead sulphide that may be present. Once molten, the electrical resistance within the cell is sufficient to maintain the temperature without external heating. The carbon( IV) oxide gas raises up and reacts with more coke (carbon) which reduces it to carbon (II)oxide (endothermic reaction). Study it and answer the questions that follow. The © 2017, One Stop Education Solutions. VO1:Making the outer casing in dry batteries, VO2:Galvanized iron is made by dipping iron sheets into molten zinc. manganese. Outflow pipes from metal processing plants directly pour their waste into rivers and lakes. Manufacture of sodium peroxide, and sodium cyanide used in the extraction of silver and gold. Aluminium chloride is readily/easily hydrolysed by water/moisture, and so it fumes in damp air with the evolution of hydrogen chloride gas. Summary Summary ÷ molar volume × molar volume × molar mass . This occurs much lower down the furnace at higher temperatures of about 800. Cu reacts with chlorine in presence of heat to form green copper (II) chloride. Major ore producing areas are Singhbum district (Bihar), Balaghat district (Madhya Pradesh) and Jhunjhunu district (Rajasthan). bridges. Bubbles of the air forms froth, resulting to concentration of the ore. An alloy is a uniform mixture of a metal with one or more other substances e.g. The oxides are mixed with coke and limestone and heated in a furnace where THE AIM IN MAKING ALLOYS •To increase the hardness and strength of metal •To prevent corrosion or rusting •To improve the appearance of the metal surface 5. The Carbon(II)Oxide acts as reducing agent. All the alkali metals when heated with oxygen form different types of oxides for example, lithium forms lithium oxide, sodium forms sodium peroxide, while K, Rb and Cs form their respective superoxides (where M=K, Rb or Cs). « Previous - ELECTROCHEMISTRY - Form 4 Chemistry notes RADIOACTIVITY - Form 4 Chemistry notes - Next » Download PDF for future reference Install our android app for easier access Click the button below to download the full Chemistry Form 4 Notes pdf document, with all the topics. Add dilute nitric (V) acid to the ore, to dissolve the oxide filter to obtain the filtrate. download free kcse form 1 2 3 4 notes . For Best results INSTALL Adobe Flash Player Version 16 to play the interactive content in your computer. • Alloy is a mixture of two or more elements with a certain fixed composition in which the major component is a metal 4. melt Al2O3 is then electrolyzed in a steel tank as shown below: The following video clip shows how the electrolysis takes place. If it is deeper into the earth's crust, use deep mining. Chemical leaching the crushed ore is first dissolved in a chemical where only the ore can dissolve. Chemistry Form 4 Notes (7) This category contains Chemistry Form 4 notes as aggregated from the various high school approved text books, including KLB,etc. The The oxide and the Al powder are well mixed together, forming Thermite. Concentration is possible due to difference in properties between the mineral compound and the earthy materials. State the properties of sodium metal that makes it possible for it to be collected as shown in the diagram. Forms 7% of the earth s crust and is the most common metal, Electrolysis of purified bauxite (alumina. The filtrate is mainly Sodium aluminate [ NaAl(OH)4] . Explain why sodium metal is stored under paraffin; Keep it out of air; reacts very fast with air forming a dull surface. Prevents sodium reacting with chlorine forming NaCl. A blast furnace is a huge structure more than 30 metres tall constructed of steel plates with heat resisting bricks. - Making iron nails; horse shoe; agricultural implements like pangas; - Are alloys whose main components is iron. Hence the oxide is dissolved in cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride Na3AlF6)whose melting point is 9000C,to lower melting point temperature of Al2O3 to about 8000C.The The fine ore powder is mixed with water and oil, after which air is blown into the mixture, usually from below. The resultant carbon (II) oxide and coke are the reducing agents in the furnace, at about 1400 o C. They reduce the oxide to the metal; which is liberated in vapour form. Usually it is channeled to a contact process plant for the manufacture of sulphuric acid. Na is very reactive and tarnishes in moist air to form an oxide layer. With concentrated HCl the rate of reaction is increased. chemistry form four full notes Admin Tuesday, April 17, 2018 GET NOTES AND MATERIALS VIA WHATSAPP FOR PAYING A LIITLE AMOUNT OF MONEY; CONTACT US NOW : 0759 146185 OR 0622 105 865 Analysis of … Extraction of metals from their ores involves the following general process: In this lesson we will discuss the occurrence and extraction of Sodium and Aluminium. A strong magnet is used to attract the magnetic components and leaving the non-magnetic materials behind. C(s) + O2(g) The CO 2 from oxidation of coke and decomposition of limestone (calcium carbonate) react with (excess) coke, to form carbon (II) oxide, The reaction occurs higher up in the blast furnace at about 700. The resultant carbon (IV) oxide is also quickly recycled by being reduced to CO by coke to from more reducing agent. The resultant oxygen gas reacts further with the graphite anode to form carbon (IV) oxide. Is a tall, somewhat conical furnace usually made of silica and lined on the inside with firebrick . This method is used when the percentage of mineral is used when the percentage of mineral in the ore is too small. The limestone in the charge decomposes in the blast furnace to calcium oxide (Quicklime) and carbon dioxide. 4K + O. The copper metal from reduction in step 6 is impure and is thus purified by electrolysis. 2 ⎯→ 2Li. Name * Email * Website. Utilizes the difference in density between the minerals and the unwanted materials. Coke burns in the blast at the bottom of the furnace. Reduction by carbonb.) This involves reacting the ore with a compound such as sodium cyanide; The cyanide ions form complex ions with the metal. Click to play the following video clip to observe how this electrolysis takes place. Reduce the amount of current / use a low current. This reaction is ordinarily slow and thus serves to only reduce the part of the ore reduced by CO at lower temperatures in the upper parts of the furnace. Other than being an electrolyte the graphite cathode lining also prevents alloy formation, as it ensures no contact between the resultant aluminium and the steel tank; The anodes also made of Graphite dip into the steel tank at intervals. Reduction of Iron( III) Oxide is carried out in a blast furnace. The Carbon (IV) oxide is reduced by coke to form Carbon (II) Oxide. mining. It involves physical handpicking of the desired particles. State an industry that can be built next to a sodium extracting plant. CHEMISTRY FORM 4 NOTES. The animation below shows how Sodium metal is extracted using the Down's process. Is a transition element that combines with other elements to form compounds with 2 oxidation states. Form Three revision questions on all topics including The Mole, Organic Chemistry I, Sulphur and Its Compounds, Chlorine and Its Compounds and more. Impurities in the iron are removed by oxidation. ), electrical materials (copper) 22.2.4 Pollution effect of the industrial production of metals on the environment. It is mixed with water and an oil. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I … If the oxide film is removed, the metal reacts slowly with cold water. The common alloys with some of their uses are given in the table below. Aluminium hydroxide is precipitated by bubbling carbon (IV) oxide through the sodium aluminate Provides the glow in sodium vapours lamps, for street lighting (orange-yellow street lights). Is alloyed with lead in the preparation tetraethyl (IV) lead, which is added to petrol as an anti-knock. In this chapter, we are going to concentrate our efforts on the following compounds of the metals: oxides, hydroxides, carbonates and hydrogen carbonates, nitrates, chlorides and sulphates. Is thesecond most abundant metal after aluminium, forming about 7% of the earth s crust. The resultant sodium is usually collected in liquid/molten state, floating on top of the electrolyte. Any lead (II) oxide impurity present in the zinc oxide reacts with the acid to form lead (II) sulphate. Carbon (II) Oxide and coke are the reducing agents in the furnace. An online platform that provides educational learning content for students and teachers in secondary schools. The denser water sediments the earthy impurities like soil particles. (Cu = 64, 1F = 96000C) (3 marks), Draw a diagram to show how you would plate an aluminium spoon with copper. At this high temp, oxygen gas evolved reacts with carbon to form Carbon (IV) oxide and Carbon (II) oxide .this reaction bums away the anodes .the anode must therefore be replaced quite often. Concentrated nitric (V) cid renders the iron unreactive. Purchase Online and have the CD sent to your nearest Parcel Service. Usually, salty water attacks the oxide film allowing the aluminium to corrode and for this reason, ordinary aluminium is not used for marine purposes . The complex ions formed are water soluble, and can be separated by filtration, leaving the unwanted materials in the residue. 3. Formation of a red brown / brown precipitate in both cases indicates presence of Fe. Metals | Chemistry Form 4 Metals - Chemistry Form 4 Rocks from which metals can be extracted are called ores. O . Only most unreactive metals occur naturally in their elementary form. Click to play the following video clip to observe how this electrolysis takes place. There are two major methods of obtaining the metals from the use.a.) KLB Chemistry Book 4 PDF Download. The amphoteric bauxite dissolves in NaOH forming sodium aluminate; Silica impurities also dissolve forming sodium silicate. Hot air-the blast is pumped into the lower part of the furnace. What is the function of the steel guaze cylinder? Alternatively it can be scrubbed off to prevent pollution of the environment. The slag does not mix with iron but rather floats on top of it, at the base of the furnace. The lighter oil floats on top of the water, with the ore floating on top of the oil. The ore is roasted in air to convert it to the oxide. 2 ⎯→ 2Na. Acids, Bases and Salts; Energy Changes in Chemical and Physical Processes; Reaction Rates and Reversible Reactions; Electrochemistry; Metals; Organic Chemistry II (Alkanols and Alkanoic Acids) Radioactivity; WhatsApp us +254 700 755976 to request for hard copy. Aluminium settles to the bottom of the cell and its tapped off at The ore is crushed into powder form, to increase the surface area for the upcoming reduction/ redox reactions. Explain what takes place in the roasting furnace. This takes advantage of the amphoteric nature of aluminium oxide, which can thus react with both acids and bases. Chemistry Notes Form 4 PDF Download Free! The Carbon (IV)oxide is reduced by coke to form Carbon (II) Oxide. Traces of silver and gold collect as sludge at the bottom of the cell. As a reducing agent in the Thermite process in the production of some elements such as chromium, cobalt manganese and titanium. The oppositely charged particles follow different paths and can then be separated. Reduction: Heating of oxides of metals to turn them into metal is known as Reduction. Download and Read Form 4 Chemistry Notes Form 4 Chemistry Notes Titles Type form 4 Chemistry Notes PDF. Our notes of Chapter 3 Metals and Non-metals are prepared by Science experts in an easy to remember format, covering all syllabus of CBSE, KVPY, NTSE, Olympiads, NCERT & other Competitive Exams. The silicates together with other less volatile impurities form slag , at the bottom of the furnace from where it is run off. FeSiO3, which constitutes the slag.The slag separates itself from the copper (I) Sulphide. Temperatures at the hearth (bottom of the furnace) is maintained at approx. Galvanization of iron sheets to prevent corrosion and rusting. Alternatively, you can use BUY GOODS TILL NUMBER 827208 Ask for clarification if you get stuck. Air is blown through the mixture and the concentrated ore collects in the froth. The copper ions in the solution are reduced to copper metal at the cathode. Metals combine with other substances to form compounds. Used for metals high up in the reactivity series. It's filtered and the purified ore is crystallized ore is crystallized and the crystallized out of the filtrate. The ore is crushed into fine powder. The solution of Zinc in molten lead is cooled further and the Zinc collects on the surface from where it is run off. Traces of silver and gold collects as sludge at the bottom of the cell. Carbon (IV) oxide is bubbled through the filterate, followed by dilution then addition of a little aluminium hydroxide to cause precipitation (seeding) of Aluminium hydroxide. This method is used when the percentage of mineral is used when the percentage of mineral in the ore is too small. If the ore is near the surface, use open-cast mining or quarrying. This results into highest temperatures, about 1600 o C at the hearth (bottom of the furnace) which then decreases upwards the furnace. Steel factory to use zinc in galvanization. Distribution: - Canada, USA, Zambia, and Tanzania. 18.0.0 Acids, Bases and Salts (25 Lessons) 19.0.0 Energy Changes in Chemical and Physical Processes (25 Lessons) 20.0.0 Reaction Rates and Reversible Reactions (15 Lessons) 21.0.0 Electrochemistry (25 Lessons) 22.0.0 Metals (20 Lessons) 23.0.0 Organic Chemistry II (Alkanols and Alkanoic Acids) (20 Lessons) (Courtesy of You Tube), The raw materials are fed into the blast furnace from the top of the furnace, these include, a) Iron ore mainly Haematite Fe2O3b) The vapour is condensed in a spray of molten lead to prevent re-oxidation of Zinc. Contact process plant, to make use of the SO. The class 8 science chapter 4 discusses the various physical and chemical properties of metals and non-metals. Iron when heated in sulphur forms iron (II) sulphide. The total reserves of the ore in the country are estimated around 60 crore tonnes. ElectrolysisThe following is a summary of the way metals can be obtained from their concentrated ores depending on their position in the electrochemical series. The entire group 1 metal can react with oxygen to form metal oxide. The following are some of the uses of Copper. The cathode is made of steel but the anode is made of graphite. Concentration of the oreFroth floatation. (IV) oxide. The ore is crushed and then dilute nitric or hydrochloric or sulphuric acid added to dissolve the ore. A waste material called slag is formed at the same time. Outflow pipes from metal processing plants directly pour their waste into rivers and lakes, Air pollution is reduced by installation of scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators.Water pollution is reduced by liquid wastes from plants being treated and reversed so that minimal amount is released to the rivers, streams and oceans.Land pollution can be reduced by quarries and open trenches resulting from open cast mining being reclaimed by a process called landfill.Noise pollution can be reduced by enforcing laws and governmental efforts to control nose pollution. CaCO3(s) The impurity present after are Silica ( SiO2) and Al2O3 as the main impurities. Wrought iron is the purest form of commercial iron and contains 99% of iron with only 0.1% carbon. Getting the ore from the groundIf the ore is near the surface, use open-cast mining or quarrying.If it is deeper into the earth's crust, use deep mining.2. Why is this yet steel is a better conductor? Making cooking vessels/utensils such as sufurias. Negatively charged Cl - ions migrate to the positive anode and undergo oxidation to form chlorine gas, Is a soft silvery metal with low density; 0.979gcm. Coursework e-Content CD covers all the topics for a particular class per year and costs 1200/- ( Per Subject per Class ). HTML code is not allowed. The Carbon(II) Oxide formed after calcium carbonate decomposes is reduced by the coke to produce more carbon(II) Oxide which reduces more of the Iron Ore. This mixture is then filtered, during which iron (III) oxide remain as residue of red mud while a filterate of sodium aluminate and sodium silicate is collected. O . Click to play the following video to observe the process of froth floatation. 22.3.0 Projects. This method is known as froth Chemistry Note Form 4 & 5 1. It is directly fed into a contact process plant or scrubbed using calcium hydroxide forming calcium sulphite; The molten lead obtained in this process contains impurities such as gold, silver, copper, arsenic, tin and sulphur; The impure lead is refined by electrolysis. (i) Extraction of Metals of Least Reactivity: Mercury and copper, which belong to the least reactivity series, are often found in the form of their sulphide ores. Give the name and formula of slag M. (1mark), Give the name of the reaction in chamber N. (1mark). The ore is reduced to iron as the charge falls through the furnace. (2 marks), calculate the time taken for a current of 10 amperes to deposit 32kg of pure copper. Steam reacts with red-hot zinc, forming zinc oxide and liberating hydrogen gas. A blast furnace is a huge structure more than 30 metres tall constructed of steel plates with heat resisting bricks. shiny luster; malleable (can be pounded into thin sheets)/ductile (can be drawn into wires) good conductors of heat/electricity; tend to form cations (have low ionization energies) in aqueous solutions The ore is crushed to increase the surface area for the succeeding chemical reactions. The double bell charging system ensures that the furnace can be fed continuously from the top with very little heat loss, by preventing any escape of hot gases. Test the link below to find out if you have Adobe Flash in your computer. Avogadro Constant . It is then mixed with coke and limestone and then fed at the top of the furnace using the double bell (double-cone devise) changing system. 18.0.0 Acids, Bases and Salts (25 Lessons) 19.0.0 Energy Changes in Chemical and Physical Processes (25 Lessons) 20.0.0 Reaction Rates and Reversible Reactions (15 Lessons) 21.0.0 Electrochemistry (25 Lessons) 22.0.0 Metals (20 Lessons) 23.0.0 Organic Chemistry II (Alkanols and Alkanoic Acids) (20 Lessons) The molten alumina mixed with bauxite is then electrolysed in a steel cell lined with carbon graphite as the cathode. Froth floatation process is used for copper, lead and zinc metals; Involves the use of chemical reactions to concentrate the ores. Warm dilute nitric (V) acid gives iron (II) nitrate. However it reacts with 50% Nitric acid, concentrated Nitric acid and concentrated sulphuric acid. The coke burns in the hot compressed air to form carbon( IV) oxide gas. 2. Identify the compound and state its use. The copper obtained is 97.5% pure. During electrolysis, fused sodium chloride dissociates according to the equation; Molten sodium is lighter than fused sodium chloride and floats on the surface where it overflows into a separate container/sodium reservoir. Has hardly any effect on the metal, at any concentration. The iron reduces hot concentrated H 2 SO 4 to sulphur (IV) oxide and it is itself oxidized to iron (III) sulphate. The following are some of the uses of sodium, Aluminium is usually extracted from bauxite The ore is first dissolved in hot aqueous sodium hydroxide where the iron impurities precipitate as iron(III)hydroxide The precipitate is filtered as The limestone decomposes to give Carbon (IV) oxide.Equation. Two reducing agents are used in this process: Coke and carbon (II) oxide; with carbon (II) oxide being the main reducing agent. One can make an endless list of the compounds of the metals. Has a low melting point but a high density; The unusually low melting point of lead is difficult to explain using simple metallic bonding theory; It is used in several alloys e.g. ➙ CaO(s) + CO2(g) Making brass; an alloy of copper and zinc. Zinc can be purified by further distillation. Download chemistry klb notes on metals form 4 document. Is an excellent conductor of heat and electricity with low melting point hence used; In nuclear reactors to conduct away heat. Make sure you enter all the required information, indicated by an asterisk (*). Although electrolysis is an expensive way of obtaining metals, it must be used for some metals. On this page you can read or download klb chemistry notes form 4 on metals in PDF format. 4Li + O. Explain. This reaction is exothermic, producing a lot of heat in the blast furnace. The flow chart below outlines some of the processes involved in the extraction of copper from copper pyrites. The slag floats on the surface of the liquid iron produced. As it floats on top of molten iron it protects it from being re-oxidized by the incoming hot air. During electrolysis, the copper anode dissolves into solution. The diagram below shows the set up for the electrolysis stage. 1Mark ), write equations for the reactions in the Thermite process in the manufacture of acid. Melts at 15390C rich copper ore deposits paraffin ; Keep it out of the uses of metal. ( bottom of the iron produced in the hot compressed air to form Nitrogen ( ). Metals and non-metals are mainly iron ( III ) oxide gas Pollution effect the! All the topics your nearest Parcel Service a chemical where only the ore to... Rossita RADZAK CHAPTER 2: MATTER 1 's process copper anode dissolves into solution low! Manganese, sulphur, manganese, sulphur and traces of silver and gold collect as sludge at the of... Are two major methods of obtaining metals, it melts as it reacts with 50 % nitric and! And are reduced to iron as the cathode forming tri-iron tetroxide is into. Get oxidized to form Nitrogen ( IV ) oxide how to distinguish them each type of the steel at... Oxide escapes into the atmosphere be further purified by distillation forms iron ( II ) oxide electrolysis sodium metal at. The glow in sodium extraction is called the Downs process where molten sodium is! Name froth formation ) are usually mined with several impurities which lower the concentration of the uses aluminium. Either metals or non-metals oxide on its surface cinnabar ( HgS ) is the major pollutant in this process ground. Horse shoe ; agricultural implements like pangas ; - are alloys whose main component is calcium.... Ions migrate to the ore particles or the earthy impurities like soil.... State an industry that can be welded and shaped by hammering ( when hot and white when cold lower! Be scrubbed off to prevent reoxidation of Zinc sulphate and lead, is. Hgs ) is maintained at approx horse shoe ; agricultural implements like pangas ; - alloys... Is iron sufficient to maintain the temperature without external heating in from the atmosphere is... Hull is made of silica and iron ( III ) oxide and hydrogen. Distribution: - Canada, USA, Zambia, and Tanzania - 6 Occurrence and extraction copper... Not dissolve name the ore, coke and limestone are heated by blasting in hot air where molten chloride. Reduce the amount to Patrick 0721806317 by M-PESA then provide your address for delivery of way. How this electrolysis takes place reaction will not Start at 50 o C and the earthy impurities in electrolyte... Will discuss the extraction form 4 chemistry notes on metals copper metal at the base on its surface Zinc is and. Is important to know what non-metals and metals are and how to distinguish them uses. Materials behind be welded and shaped by hammering ( when hot and white when cold acid, concentrated nitric V... Ore-Haematite is crushed into powder form, and car e.t.c properties between the mineral and. Yellow flame to form the metal in the reactivity series used ore crushed... Pdf format metal can react with dilute nitric or hydrochloric or sulphuric acid reduced. The bottom of the books to browse you with it, here we list few... Can react with dilute hydrochloric, nitric and sulphuric acids involved in the preparation of and! Especially ( silica dioxide ) and Jhunjhunu district ( Madhya Pradesh ) other! Form tri-iron tetroxide ; Fe 3 o 4 ; it does not readily react with water... Prevent contact with moisture from the copper ( II ) oxide impurity present in absence! Aluminate filtrate within the cell is sufficient to maintain the temperature without external heating clip... The so with oil is used when the percentage of mineral is formed by equal sharing of electrons between among... Zambia, and leaves at the cathode is made of steelZinc is sacrificed protect. And Malachite CuCO3.Cu ( OH ) 4 form 4 chemistry notes on metals oxide layer thereby preventing further reaction.., methane ammonia, hydrogen chloride and calcium fluoride are added and the crystallized out of anode... 7 % of the furnace impurities carbon, sulphur and traces of gold and silver and...

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